THEORIST: HOWARD GARDNER
As a professor of cognition (the John H. and Elisabeth A. Hobbs Professor of Cognition and Education at theHarvard Graduate School of Education) John Howard Gardner pioneered brain research that challenged the prevailing assumptions that a paper and pencil test could measure intelligence. Within the early 1980's, his theories were already being accepted within academic circles.
In 1993, Howard Gardner wrote Framing Minds in an effort to provide a mainstream method of communicating his theory of multiple intelligences. Since then, he developed the theories to include naturalistic and existentialist intelligences.In addition, Gardner continued to write books for a semi-popular audience. For example, his book Responsibility at Work surveyed various professions with the goal of discovering what types of intelligences were used in various places of employment. Changing Minds dealt with the topic of why and how people change their minds - and why it is so rare.